Bun

TCP sockets

Use Bun's native TCP API to implement performance sensitive systems like database clients, game servers, or anything that needs to communicate over TCP (instead of HTTP). This is a low-level API intended for library authors and for advanced use cases.

Start a server (Bun.listen())

To start a TCP server with Bun.listen:

Bun.listen({
  hostname: "localhost",
  port: 8080,
  socket: {
    data(socket, data) {}, // message received from client
    open(socket) {}, // socket opened
    close(socket) {}, // socket closed
    drain(socket) {}, // socket ready for more data
    error(socket, error) {}, // error handler
  },
});

An API designed for speed

Contextual data can be attached to a socket in the open handler.

type SocketData = { sessionId: string };

Bun.listen<SocketData>({
  hostname: "localhost",
  port: 8080,
  socket: {
    data(socket, data) {
      socket.write(`${socket.data.sessionId}: ack`);
    },
    open(socket) {
      socket.data = { sessionId: "abcd" };
    },
  },
});

To enable TLS, pass a tls object containing key and cert fields.

Bun.listen({
  hostname: "localhost",
  port: 8080,
  socket: {
    data(socket, data) {},
  },
  tls: {
    // can be string, BunFile, TypedArray, Buffer, or array thereof
    key: Bun.file("./key.pem"),
    cert: Bun.file("./cert.pem"),
  },
});

The key and cert fields expect the contents of your TLS key and certificate. This can be a string, BunFile, TypedArray, or Buffer.

Bun.listen({
  // ...
  tls: {
    // BunFile
    key: Bun.file("./key.pem"),
    // Buffer
    key: fs.readFileSync("./key.pem"),
    // string
    key: fs.readFileSync("./key.pem", "utf8"),
    // array of above
    key: [Bun.file("./key1.pem"), Bun.file("./key2.pem")],
  },
});

The result of Bun.listen is a server that conforms to the TCPSocket interface.

const server = Bun.listen({
  /* config*/
});

// stop listening
// parameter determines whether active connections are closed
server.stop(true);

// let Bun process exit even if server is still listening
server.unref();

Create a connection (Bun.connect())

Use Bun.connect to connect to a TCP server. Specify the server to connect to with hostname and port. TCP clients can define the same set of handlers as Bun.listen, plus a couple client-specific handlers.

// The client
const socket = Bun.connect({
  hostname: "localhost",
  port: 8080,

  socket: {
    data(socket, data) {},
    open(socket) {},
    close(socket) {},
    drain(socket) {},
    error(socket, error) {},

    // client-specific handlers
    connectError(socket, error) {}, // connection failed
    end(socket) {}, // connection closed by server
    timeout(socket) {}, // connection timed out
  },
});

To require TLS, specify tls: true.

// The client
const socket = Bun.connect({
  // ... config
  tls: true,
});

Hot reloading

Both TCP servers and sockets can be hot reloaded with new handlers.

Server
Client
Server
const server = Bun.listen({ /* config */ })

// reloads handlers for all active server-side sockets
server.reload({
  socket: {
    data(){
      // new 'data' handler
    }
  }
})
Client
const socket = Bun.connect({ /* config */ })
socket.reload({
  data(){
    // new 'data' handler
  }
})

Buffering

Currently, TCP sockets in Bun do not buffer data. For performance-sensitive code, it's important to consider buffering carefully. For example, this:

socket.write("h");
socket.write("e");
socket.write("l");
socket.write("l");
socket.write("o");

...performs significantly worse than this:

socket.write("hello");

To simplify this for now, consider using Bun's ArrayBufferSink with the {stream: true} option:

import { ArrayBufferSink } from "bun";

const sink = new ArrayBufferSink();
sink.start({ stream: true, highWaterMark: 1024 });

sink.write("h");
sink.write("e");
sink.write("l");
sink.write("l");
sink.write("o");

queueMicrotask(() => {
  const data = sink.flush();
  const wrote = socket.write(data);
  if (wrote < data.byteLength) {
    // put it back in the sink if the socket is full
    sink.write(data.subarray(wrote));
  }
});

Corking — Support for corking is planned, but in the meantime backpressure must be managed manually with the drain handler.